Webster

The Constitution was made to guard the people against the dangers of good intentions." --American Statesman Daniel Webster (1782-1852)


Wednesday, April 26, 2017

The Left went after O'Reilly and now going after Hannity

Right after Bill Oreilly was canned by Fox News for  supposedly improprieties with female staffers, the left ignoring the stuff their own do targeted the advertisers for Fox News.  And FoxNews caved, they waited until Oreilly was out of the country on vacation and then wacked him.  Well Roger Ailes is no longer running Fox news, the sons are, and the sons and their wives are part of the well heeled of the New York Liberal set.  The liberal left is rejoicing and now they are going after the 2nd most powerful person at Fox and that is Hannity.  Now Hannity has vowed to fight the charges made by some women that happened 15 years ago, and he stated in his program that he has a team of lawyers and investigators and they will go after anyone that tries to file a spurious charge on him.  I live in the Atlanta area, I got exposed to talk radio in the early 90's and the announcer was Neal Boortz, he was the direct competition for Hannity in the Atlanta market.  Boortz called him "Baby Jesus" for his image is squeaky clean.

     Sean Hannity has maintained that image since he left the Atlanta market to hit it big in New York and syndication.  And yes I can hear the Hannity show here in Atlanta.  Sean has stated that" this is a coordinated effort to silence all conservative voices on the air."
      My opinion is that the left is laying the groundwork for 2018 and 2020, 2018 is a dry run for silencing opponents to their agenda and they want them gone by 2020 so there will be nobody that will be on the air supporting President Trump.  Sean and others like him have been supporters of President Trump since he announced his nomination and when he got the GOP nomination for President.  If the left is successful, then they will be able to control the narrative. and Trump will find himself alone trying to get his message out there. and with the media and democrats using the same playbook, they will be able to bury his message.  Remember there was a survey out a couple of days ago on drudge about the overwhelmingly negative coverage President Trump is getting whereas in 2009, the same media treated President Obama as a rock star and pop culture icon. 
     The liberals are doing this so when they have control again, they will make sure that they will never lose the power again, never allow an opposing voice to be heard. 

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Monday Music "California Dreaming" by the Mama's & the Papa's

Yes I know it is Tuesday, I was unable to get Monday Music on Monday.  All I can say in my defense is that I was whipped from this weekend, I finally got home around 1600 hours, had to get our gear on the front porch so it can dry, I drove through monsoons the entire way home and everything was soaked.  I was thinking that a camper shell for camping use might be a worthwhile investment.  Then I went to work Sunday night.  I had to run errands and some chores including a new "doggie" gate, apparently the wooden one I had installed to keep the dog away from upstairs became a chew toy.  He ate it up in less than a week.  Anyway I decided to roll with this song, I remembered my dad playing this song through his "reel to reel".  When I was in Germany I bought a cassette tape from the PX to play in my Mustang and it was a top compilation of 60's hits.  It reminded me of home a bit, and it was a good song as was many of the others on the tape. 


"California Dreamin'" is a song written by John Phillips and Michelle Phillips and was first recorded by Barry McGuire. However, the best known version is by The Mamas & the Papas, who sang backup on the original version and released as a single in 1965. The song is #89 in Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The lyrics of the song express the narrator's longing for the warmth of Los Angeles during a cold winter in New York City.
The song became a signpost of the California Myth and the arrival of the nascent counterculture era.
"California Dreamin' " was certified as a Gold Record (single) by the RIAA in June 1966 and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2001.

The song was written in 1963 while John Phillips and Michelle Phillips were living in New York.He dreamed about the song and woke her up to help him write it. Michelle Phillips enjoyed visiting churches, and she and John Phillips visited St. Patrick's Cathedral, which inspired the second verse of "California Dreamin’" ("Stopped into a church..."). John hated the verse, as he was turned off to churches by unpleasant memories of parochial school, but he couldn't think of anything better so he left it in. At the time, John and Michelle Phillips were members of the folk group "The New Journeymen", which evolved into The Mamas & the Papas.

They earned their first record contract after being introduced to Lou Adler, the head of Dunhill Records, by Barry McGuire. In thanks to Adler, they sang the backing vocals to "California Dreamin'" with members of the session band The Wrecking Crew on McGuire's album This Precious Time. The Mamas & the Papas then recorded their own version using the same instrumental and backing vocal tracks to which they added new vocals and an alto flute solo by Bud Shank. P. F. Sloan did the guitar introduction. McGuire's original vocal can be briefly heard on the left channel at the beginning of the record, having not been completely wiped.

The single was released in late 1965 but was not an immediate breakthrough. After gaining little attention in Los Angeles upon its release, Michelle Phillips remembers that it took a radio station in Boston to break the song nationwide. After making its chart debut in January 1966, the song peaked at number 4 in March on both the Billboard Hot 100, lasting 17 weeks, and Cashbox, lasting 20 weeks. "California Dreamin'" was the number 1 single of 1966 in Billboard and tied for number 1 with "Ballad of the Green Berets" in Cashbox. "California Dreamin'" also reached number 23 on the UK charts upon its original release and re-charted after its use in a Carling Black Label commercial in 1997, eventually peaking at number 9 there.


Friday, April 21, 2017

Going camping....again....

We are going camping this weekend to Conclave, it is an Order of the Arrow event.   I also got very busy with work and stuff going on here.  I am working on the Red storm Rising post, man talk about a lot of material on the Tanks.  I will get it up on Sunday.     Please for your reading enjoyment, read the people on the sidebar.  they are very good!








Tuesday, April 18, 2017

What is up with the Left?


   I will run with a post before going back to the "Red Storm Rising". postings.   I have heard some of the leftist getting real upset about Trump dropping the MOAB on the Taliban.  My opinion is that Trump used this to make a statement to the world that it "isn't business as usual" and there are adults in charge.  Meanwhile the leftist are besides themselves...
To understand the present day snowflake, they are on the cutting edge of the outrage machine, they are trying soo hard to be relevant with their peers.  The average leftist has the attention span of a gnat, they move from cause to cause and outrage to outrage, they are trying soo hard to ride the latest craze or cause to "Matter".  to themselves and their friends.  The average liberal has nothing else to live for, the politics consume their soul.  We conservatives strike a balance, we don't cut off friends if they are liberals, but the average leftist will have a "scorched Earth" policy, if you don't believe like they do, then to the average leftist, "you are a Nazi" and deserve every bad thing that happens to you.  They will cut you off, if you are family, they will disown you, if you are a friend, they will denounce you for heresy and try to get you fired from your job because " you deserve it" .
The average leftist view "us" as less than human and we deserve everything bad that happens to us.  When people view their opponents and fellow people as "less than Human", this is a basis for genocide, like sending their fellow Americans to a "FEMA camps" for reeducation or extermination..   I truly have grave concerns for the near future and the future that my son will inherit.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Monday Music "Manic Monday" by the Bangles!"

I came back home.....reset my router and modem and YAY my internet was 100% back!!  I was doing the Happy Dance..

The song is kinda appropriate since it has Monday in it and I am featuring it as part of my Monday Music.  I remember this song hit MTV real hard in early in 1986 while I was at A.I.T at Fort Devens., and we would watch this song on TV while waiting to form up in formation to march to class about a mile away.   Even now I don't know about most people but i associate music with where I was when I first heard the song.  To me I associate it with Fort Devens, most of the memories were not good in the beginning but the place introduced me to Boston, and I loved going to Boston and following in the footsteps of major historical figures and I actually drank a beer at the Bullfinch Pub off Boston Commons where they got the idea for "Cheers".   I hated Massachusetts but I loved Boston.  Well anyway, here is Manic Monday.




"Manic Monday" is a song by the American pop rock band The Bangles, and the first single released from their second studio album Different Light (1986). It was written by Prince, using the pseudonym "Christopher". Originally intended for the group Apollonia 6 in 1984, he offered the song to The Bangles two years later. Lyrically it describes a woman who is waking up on Monday, wishing it was still Sunday.




Different Light is the second studio album by the American pop rock band the Bangles, released in January 1986. It is their best-known album, with four charting singles (five in the UK) including a Top 5 hit and a number one. The album's Top 40 sound was a departure from their earlier 1960s-style rock'n'roll sound. It is the first album in which bassist Michael Steele sings lead vocals on some tracks.



     Released to generally positive reviews from music critics and some comparisons with The Mamas & the Papas' "Monday, Monday", it was the band's first hit, reaching number two in the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as in Austria, Canada, Germany and Ireland, and within top five in New Zealand, Norway and Switzerland. It was later certified silver in the UK by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI). The song was covered by several artists in 2005 and 2006.

Prince wrote "Manic Monday" in 1984, and recorded it as a duet for the band Apollonia 6's self-titled album; however, he eventually pulled the song. Two years later, he offered the single to The Bangles under the pseudonym "Christopher", a character he played in the 1986 film Under the Cherry Moon. It was rumored by various writers that after Prince listened to the band's 1984 debut album All Over the Place, he gave the song to Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs, so that in return she would sleep with him.

Peterson explained in an interview with MTV UK in 1989 about why Prince gave them the song: "[Prince] really liked our first album. He liked the song 'Hero Takes a Fall', which is a great compliment, because we liked his music. He contacted us, and said, 'I've got a couple of songs for you. I'd like to know if you're interested,' and of course we were. One of the songs Prince brought to the group was 'Manic Monday', written under the pseudonym of Christopher." Peterson talked about the evolution of what Prince brought them: "It was a Banglefication of a Prince arrangement. He had a demo, that was very specifically him. It was a good song, but we didn't record it like 'This is our first hit single! Oh my God! I can feel it in my veins!' We just did the song, and the album, and then sat back and thought about it."

A pop song written in D Major, "Manic Monday" moves at a tempo of 116 beats per minute and is set in common time. The song has a sequence of G–A7–D–G–A7–D as its chord progression.Lyrically, the song is about someone waking up from a romantic dream at six o'clock on Monday morning, and facing a hectic journey to work when she would prefer to still be enjoying relaxing on Sunday—her "I-don't-have-to-run day".Actor Rudolph Valentino is referred in the introduction.






Sunday, April 16, 2017

Happy Easter..



I am still in Tennessee but we will be traveling home.  I hope to get the internet up and going.  It may be tomorrow because I doubt that Charter technical help is working today.


Happy Easter to all my fellow bloggers, readers and family.  Spend time with the family and remember it is all about family.


Jesus Has Risen
1After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
2There was a violent earthquake, for an angel of the Lord came down from heaven and, going to the tomb, rolled back the stone and sat on it. 3His appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow. 4The guards were so afraid of him that they shook and became like dead men.
5The angel said to the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified. 6He is not here; he has risen, just as he said. Come and see the place where he lay. 7Then go quickly and tell his disciples: ‘He has risen from the dead and is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him.’ Now I have told you.”
8So the women hurried away from the tomb, afraid yet filled with joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9Suddenly Jesus met them. “Greetings,” he said. They came to him, clasped his feet and worshiped him. 10Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee; there they will see me.”
The Guards’ Report
11While the women were on their way, some of the guards went into the city and reported to the chief priests everything that had happened. 12When the chief priests had met with the elders and devised a plan, they gave the soldiers a large sum of money, 13telling them, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came during the night and stole him away while we were asleep.’ 14If this report gets to the governor, we will satisfy him and keep you out of trouble.” 15So the soldiers took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story has been widely circulated among the Jews to this very day.
The Great Commission
16Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. 17When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. 18Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”

Saturday, April 15, 2017

Toe to Toe comparison between F/A 18 and Mig 29 (Red Storm Rising)

I am at my Mom and Pops here in Pidgeon forgeTennessee, and yes they have internet :)  This post I had in mind to post Thursday morning but the backhoe at a construction site had different idea.  Once I am home, I hope to get my internet up so I can continue the posting and the series.

  Well back to this matchup.  After the success of the Soviet Navy in seizing Iceland in "Polar Glory", and they after seizing the airstrip immediately sent a regiment of Mig 29's to help in holding the island and to assist in Backfire escort as the Soviet bombers attacked the convoys trying to resupply NATO as they tried to stop the Soviet Army as it attacked near Hannover.  in Iceland the Mig 29's savaged an unescorted B-52 raid that was trying to shut down the Huge airbase that the Soviets captured.  The Migs along with the SAM-11(more on that another post) defended the island. The F-18 and the Mig 29 are similar configuration and are similar in profile making identification difficult.  The regiment of Migs did comport themselves well against the F-14's and the F-18's.  The regiment was lured away from the island during an attack by using B-52 jammers that made the Soviet believe that the island was going to be attacked by the B-52's again and Soviet doctrine stresses "get the Bombers", so the Migs ignored the American fighters and went after the bombers.  Well there were no bombers...just a bunch of F-14's with Phoenix and Sparrow missiles and most of the regiment was shot down.  the last Migs were shot down on the final attack on the island as the Navy launched the mission to retake the island and prevent the Backfires from going after the convoys.  Once the island was in allied hands the Backfires would no longer have a friendly base to fly over and attack the convoys.

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation). Designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and Northrop, the F/A-18 was derived from the latter's YF-17 in the 1970s for use by the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations and, since 1986, by the U.S. Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels.

The F/A-18 has a top speed of Mach 1.8 (1,034 knots, 1,190 mph or 1,915 km/h at 40,000 ft or 12,200 m). It can carry a wide variety of bombs and missiles, including air-to-air and air-to-ground, supplemented by the 20-mm M61 Vulcan cannon. It is powered by two General Electric F404 turbofan engines, which give the aircraft a high thrust-to-weight ratio. The F/A-18 has excellent aerodynamic characteristics, primarily attributed to its leading edge extensions. The fighter's primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defenseSuppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD), air interdictionclose air support, and aerial reconnaissance. Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its earlier contemporaries, such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat in the fighter and strike fighter role, and the Grumman A-6 Intruder and LTV A-7 Corsair II in the attack role.
The Hornet first saw combat action during the 1986 United States bombing of Libya and subsequently participated in the 1991 Gulf War and 2003 Iraq War. The F/A-18 Hornet provided the baseline design for the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, its larger, evolutionary redesign.



The U.S. Navy started the Naval Fighter-Attack, Experimental (VFAX) program to procure a multirole aircraft to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, the A-7 Corsair II, and the remaining McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs, and to complement the F-14 Tomcat. Vice Admiral Kent Lee, then head of Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), was the lead advocate for the VFAX against strong opposition from many Navy officers, including Vice Admiral William D. Houser, deputy chief of naval operations for air warfare – the highest ranking naval aviator.
In August 1973, Congress mandated that the Navy pursue a lower-cost alternative to the F-14. Grumman proposed a stripped F-14 designated the F-14X, while McDonnell Douglas proposed a naval variant of the F-15, but both were nearly as expensive as the F-14.That summer, Secretary of Defense Schlesinger ordered the Navy to evaluate the competitors in the Air Force's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program, the General Dynamics YF-16 and Northrop YF-17.The Air Force competition specified a day fighter with no strike capability. In May 1974, the House Armed Services Committee redirected $34 million from the VFAX to a new program, the Navy Air Combat Fighter (NACF) intended to make maximum use of the technology developed for the LWF program.

The F/A-18 is a twin engine, mid wing, multi-mission tactical aircraft. It is highly maneuverable, owing to its good thrust to weight ratio, digital fly-by-wirecontrol system, and leading-edge extensions (LEX). The LEX allow the Hornet to remain controllable at high angles of attack. The trapezoidal wing has a 20-degree sweepback on the leading edge and a straight trailing edge. The wing has full-span leading-edge flaps and the trailing edge has single-slotted flaps and ailerons over the entire span.

Canted vertical stabilizers are another distinguishing design element, one among several other such elements that enable the Hornet's excellent high angle of attack ability include oversized horizontal stabilators, oversized trailing edge flaps that operate as flaperons, large full-length leading-edge flaps, and flight control computer programming that multiplies the movement of each control surface at low speeds and moves the vertical rudders inboard instead of simply left and right. The Hornet's normally high angle of attack performance envelope was put to rigorous testing and enhanced in the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). NASA used the F-18 HARV to demonstrate flight handling characteristics at high angle-of-attack (alpha) of 65–70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes. F/A-18 stabilators were also used as canards on NASA's F-15S/MTD.

A F/A-18C Hornet in transonic flight producing flow-induced vapor cone
The Hornet was among the first aircraft to heavily use multi-function displays, which at the switch of a button allow a pilot to perform either fighter or attack roles or both. This "force multiplier" ability gives the operational commander more flexibility to employ tactical aircraft in a fast-changing battle scenario. It was the first Navy aircraft to incorporate a digital multiplexing avionics bus, enabling easy upgrades.
The Hornet is also notable for having been designed to reduce maintenance, and as a result has required far less downtime than its heavier counterparts, the F-14 Tomcat and the A-6 Intruder. Its mean time between failures is three times greater than any other Navy strike aircraft, and requires half the maintenance time.[8] Its General Electric F404 engines were also innovative in that they were designed with operability, reliability and maintainability first. The engine, while unexceptional in rated performance, demonstrates exceptional robustness under various conditions and is resistant to stall and flameout. The F404 engine connects to the airframe at only 10 points and can be replaced without special equipment; a four-person team can remove the engine within 20 minutes.

Exhaust nozzles of an RAAF F/A-18 at the Whenuapai Air Show in New Zealand in March 2009
The engine air inlets of the Hornet, like that of the F-16, are of a simpler "fixed" design, while those of the F-4, F-14, and F-15 have variable geometry or variable intake ramp air inlets. This is a speed limiting factor in the Hornet design. Instead, the Hornet uses bleed air vents on the inboard surface of the engine air intake ducts to slow and reduce the amount of air reaching the engine. While not as effective as variable geometry, the bleed air technique functions well enough to achieve near Mach number 2 speeds, which is within the designed mission requirements.
A 1989 USMC study found that single-seat fighters were well suited to air-to-air combat missions while dual-seat fighters were favored for complex strike missions against heavy air and ground defenses in adverse weather—the question being not so much as to whether a second pair of eyes would be useful, but as to having the second crewman sit in the same fighter or in a second fighter. Single-seat fighters that lacked wingmen were shown to be especially vulnerable.

McDonnell Douglas rolled out the first F/A-18A on 13 September 1978  in blue-on-white colors marked with "Navy" on the left and "Marines" on the right. Its first flight was on 18 November. In a break with tradition, the Navy pioneered the "principal site concept" with the F/A-18, where almost all testing was done at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, instead of near the site of manufacture, and using Navy and Marine Corps test pilots instead of civilians early in development. In March 1979, Lt. Cdr. John Padgett became the first Navy pilot to fly the F/A-18.

Following trials and operational testing by VX-4 and VX-5, Hornets began to fill the Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRS) VFA-125, VFA-106, and VMFAT-101, where pilots are introduced to the F/A-18. The Hornet entered operational service with Marine Corps squadron VMFA-314 at MCAS El Toro on 7 January 1983,  and with Navy squadron VFA-25 in March 1984, replacing F-4s and A-7Es, respectively.
Navy strike-fighter squadrons VFA-25 and VFA-113 (assigned to CVW-14) deployed aboard USS Constellation (CV 64) from February to August 1985, marking the first deployment for the F/A-18.
The initial fleet reports were complimentary, indicating that the Hornet was extraordinarily reliable, a major change from its predecessor, the F-4J. Other squadrons that switched to F/A-18 are VFA-146 "Blue diamonds", and VFA-147 "Argonauts". In January 1985, the VFA-131 "Wildcats" and the VFA-132 "Privateers" moved from Naval Air Station Lemoore, California to Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida, and became the Atlantic Fleet's first F/A-18 squadrons.


Data from U.S. Navy fact file,  Frawley Directory, Great Book
General characteristics
Performance
  • Maximum speed:
    • High altitude: Mach 1.8 (1,034 knots, 1,190 mph, 1,915 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m)
    • Low altitude: Mach 1.2 (795 knots, 915 mph, 1,473 km/h)
  • Range: 1,089 nmi (1,250 miles, 2,000 km)  with only two AIM-9s
  • Combat radius: 400 nmi (460 mi (740 km))  on air-air mission
  • Ferry range: 1,800 nmi (2,070 mi (3,330 km))
  • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,240 m)
  • Rate of climb: 50,000 ft/min (254 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 93 lb/ft² (454 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.96 (1.13 with loaded weight & 50% internal fuel)
Armament
Avionics
  • Hughes APG-73 radar
  • ROVER (Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver) antenna for use by US Navy's F/A-18C strike fighter squadrons




The Mikoyan MiG-29 (RussianМикоян МиГ-29NATO reporting name: "Fulcrum") is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union. Developed by the Mikoyan design bureau as an air superiority fighter during the 1970s, the MiG-29, along with the larger Sukhoi Su-27, was developed to counter new American fighters such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.[5] The MiG-29 entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1982.
While originally oriented towards combat against any enemy aircraft, many MiG-29s have been furnished as multirole fighters capable of performing a number of different operations, and are commonly outfitted to use a range of air-to-surface armaments and precision munitions. The MiG-29 has been manufactured in several major variants, including the multirole Mikoyan MiG-29M and the navalised Mikoyan MiG-29K; the most advanced member of the family to date is the Mikoyan MiG-35. Later models frequently feature improved engines, glass cockpits with HOTAS-compatible flight controls, modern radar and IRST sensors, and considerably increased fuel capacity; some aircraft have also been equipped for aerial refuelling.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the militaries of a number of former Soviet republics have continued to operate the MiG-29, the largest of which is the Russian Air Force. The Russian Air Force wanted to upgrade its existing fleet to the modernised MiG-29SMT configuration, but financial difficulties have limited deliveries. The MiG-29 has also been a popular export aircraft; more than 30 nations either operate or have operated the aircraft to date, India being one of the largest export operators of the type. As of 2013, the MiG-29 is in production by Mikoyan, a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) since 2006.


In the mid 1960s, the United States Air Force (USAF) encountered difficulties over the skies of Vietnam when supersonic fighter bombers like the F-105 Thunderchief which had been optimized for low altitude bombing were found to be vulnerable to older MiG-17s and more advanced MiGs which were much more maneuverable. In order to regain the sort of air superiority enjoyed over Korea, the Americans refocused on air combat using the F-4 Phantom, while the MiG-23 was the Soviet response to the American multi-role fighter. Towards the end of the 1960s, the USAF started the "F-X" program to produce a fighter dedicated to air superiority, which led to the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle being ordered for production in late 1969.

At the height of the Cold War, a Soviet response was necessary to avoid the possibility of a new American fighter gaining a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. Thus the development of a new air superiority fighter became a priority. In 1969, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel (PFI, roughly "Advanced Frontline Fighter"). Specifications were extremely ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance (including the ability to use austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The Russian aerodynamics institute TsAGI worked in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau on the aircraft's aerodynamics.

By 1971, however, Soviet studies determined the need for different types of fighters. The PFI program was supplemented with the Perspektivnyy Lyogkiy Frontovoy Istrebitel (LPFI, or "Advanced Lightweight Tactical Fighter") program; the Soviet fighter force was planned to be approximately 33% PFI and 67% LPFI. PFI and LPFI paralleled the USAF's decision that created the "Lightweight Fighter" program and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and Northrop YF-17. The PFI fighter was assigned to Sukhoi, resulting in the Sukhoi Su-27, while the lightweight fighter went to Mikoyan. Detailed design work on the resultant Mikoyan Product 9, designated MiG-29A, began in 1974, with the first flight taking place on 6 October 1977. The pre-production aircraft was first spotted by United States reconnaissance satellites in November of that year; it was dubbed Ram-L because it was observed at the Zhukovsky flight test center near the town of Kamenskoye.

The workload split between TPFI and LPFI became more apparent as the MiG-29 filtered into front line service with the Soviet Air Forces (Russian: Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily [VVS]) in the mid-1980s. While the heavy, long range Su-27 was tasked with the more exotic and dangerous role of deep air-to-air sweeps of NATO high-value assets, the smaller MiG-29 directly replaced the MiG-23 in the frontal aviation role. Features such as rugged landing gear and protective intake grates allowed MiG-29 operations from damaged or under-prepared airstrips that Soviet war planners expected to encounter during a rapid armored advance.

In the West, the new fighter was given the NATO reporting name "Fulcrum-A" because the pre-production MiG-29A, which should have logically received this designation, remained unknown in the West at that time. The Soviet Union did not assign official names to most of its aircraft, although nicknames were common. Unusually, some Soviet pilots found the MiG-29’s NATO reporting name, "Fulcrum", to be a flattering description of the aircraft’s intended purpose, and it is sometimes unofficially used in Russian service.

The MiG-29B was widely exported in downgraded versions, known as MiG-29B 9-12A and MiG-29B 9-12B for Warsaw Pact and non-Warsaw Pact nations respectively, with less capable avionics and no capability for delivering nuclear weapons. Total production was about 840 aircraft.
In the 1980s, Mikoyan developed the improved MiG-29S to use longer range R-27E and R-77 air-to-air missiles. It added a dorsal 'hump' to the upper fuselage to house a jamming system and some additional fuel capacity. The weapons load was increased to 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) with airframe strengthening. These features were included in new-built fighters and upgrades to older MiG-29s.

MiG-29UB trainer
Refined versions of the MiG-29 with improved avionics were fielded by the Soviet Union, but Mikoyan’s multirole variants, including a carrier-based version designated MiG-29K, were never produced in large numbers. Development of the MiG-29K carrier version was suspended for over a decade before being resumed; the type went into service with the Indian Navy's INS Vikramaditya, and Russian Navy's Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier.
In the post-Soviet era, MiG-29 development was influenced by the Mikoyan bureau's apparent lesser political clout than rival Sukhoi. Mikoyan had developed improved versions of the MiG-29, called MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29SMT. On 15 April 2014, the Russian Air Force placed an order for a batch of 16 MiG-29 SMT fighters.[16]
There have been several upgrade programmes conducted for the MiG-29. Common upgrades include the adoption of NATO/ICAO standard-compatible avionics, service life extensions to 4,000 flight hours, safety enhancements, greater combat capabilities and reliability. In 2005, the Russian Aircraft Corporation “MiG” established a unified family of 4++ generation multirole fighters: the aircraft carrier–based MiG-29K, front-line MiG-29M and MiG-35 fighters.

The baseline MiG-29B has a Phazotron RLPK-29 radar fire control system which includes the N019 Sapfir 29 look-down/shoot-down coherent pulse-Doppler radarand the Ts100.02-02 digital computer. Tracking range against a fighter-sized target was only about 70 km (38 nmi) in the frontal aspect and 35 km (19 nmi) in the rear aspect.

MiG-29 nose showing radome and S-31E2 KOLS IRST
The N019 radar was not a new design, but rather a development of the Sapfir-23ML architecture used on the MiG-23ML. During the initial design specification period in the mid-1970s, Phazotron NIIR was tasked with producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. To speed development, Phazotron based its new design on work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental "Soyuz" radar program. Accordingly, the N019 was originally intended to have a flat planar array antenna and full digital signal processing, for a detection and tracking range of at least 100 km against a fighter-sized target. Prototype testing revealed this could not be attained in the required timeframe and still fit within the MiG-29's nose. Rather than design a new radar, Phazotron reverted to a version of the Sapfir-23ML's twisted-polarization cassegrain antenna and traditional analog signal processors, coupled with a new NII Argon-designed Ts100 digital computer to save time and cost. This produced a working radar system, but inherited the weak points of the earlier design, plaguing the MiG-29's ability to detect and track airborne targets at ranges available with the R-27 and R-77missiles. New radars like the digital N010 Zhuk-M have addressed the signal processing shortcomings of the analog design.


MiG-29UB on display, showing gunport
The N019 was further compromised by Phazotron designer Adolf Tolkachev’s betrayal of the radar to the CIA, for which he was executed in 1986. In response to all of these problems, the Soviets hastily developed a modified N019M Topaz radar for the upgraded MiG-29S aircraft. However, VVS was reportedly still not satisfied with the performance of the system and demanded another upgrade. The latest upgraded aircraft offered the N010 Zhuk-M, which has a planar array antenna rather than a dish, improving range, and a much superior processing ability, with multiple-target engagement capability and compatibility with the Vympel R-77 (or RVV-AE). Most MiG-29 continue to use the analog N019 or N019M radar, VVS has indicated its desire to upgrade all MiG-29s to a fully digital system.
A useful feature the MiG-29 shares with the Su-27 is the S-31E2 KOLS, a combined laser rangefinder and IRST in an "eyeball" mount forward of the cockpit canopy.


Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29 with armaments laid out
Armament for the MiG-29 includes a single GSh-30-1 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. This originally had a 150-round magazine, which was reduced to 100 rounds in later variants. Original production MiG-29B aircraft cannot fire the cannon when carrying a centerline fuel tank as it blocks the shell ejection port. This was corrected in the MiG-29S and later versions. Three pylons are provided under each wing (four in some variants), for a total of six (or eight). The inboard pylons can carry either a 1,150 liter (300 US gal) fuel tank, one Vympel R-27 (AA-10 "Alamo") medium-range air-to-air missile, or unguided bombs or rockets. Some Soviet aircraft could carry a single nuclear bomb on the port inboard station. The outer pylons usually carry R-73 (AA-11 "Archer") dogfight missiles, although some users still retain the older R-60 (AA-8 "Aphid"). A single 1,500-litre (400 US gal) tank can be fitted to the centerline, between the engines, for ferry flights, but this position is not used for combat stores.

While the MiG-29's true capabilities could only be estimated from the time it first appeared In 1977 until the mid-1980s, a combination of persistent intelligence and increasing access afforded by the Soviet foreign sales effort allowed a true appreciation of its capabilities. Early MiG-29s were very agile aircraft, capable of rivalling the performance of contemporary F-18 and F-16 aircraft. However, their relatively low fuel capacity relegated them to short-range air defense missions. Lacking HOTAS and an inter-aircraft data link, and requiring a very intensive "heads-down" approach to operating cockpit controls, the early MiG-29 denied pilots the kind of situational awareness routinely enjoyed by pilots operating comparable US aircraft. Analysts and Western pilots who flew examples of the MiG-29 thought this likely prevented even very good pilots from harnessing the plane's full combat capability. Later MiG-29s were upgraded to improve their capabilities. The Soviet Union exported MiG-29s to several countries. Because 4th-generation fighter jets require the pilots to have extensive training, air-defense infrastructure, and constant maintenance and upgrades, MiG-29s have had mixed operational history with different air forces.

Data from MiG specifications
General characteristics
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 17.37 m (57 ft)
  • Wingspan: 11.4 m (37 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 4.73 m (15 ft 6 in)
  • Wing area: 38 m² (409 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,250 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 15,300 kg (33,730 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 20,000 kg (44,100 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 3,500 kg. (7,716 lbs.) internal
  • Powerplant: 2 × Klimov RD-33 afterburning turbofans, 8,300 kgf (81.4 kN, 18,300 lbf) each
Performance
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.25 (2,400 km/h, 1,490 mph) At low altitude: Mach 1.2 (1,500 km/h, 930 mph)
  • Range: 1,430 km (772 nmi, 888 mi) with maximum internal fuel
  • Ferry range: 2,100 km (1,300 mi) with external drop tanks
  • Service ceiling: 18,013 m (59,100 ft)
  • Rate of climb: initial 330 m/s average 109 m/s 0–6000 m (65,000 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 403 kg/m² (82 lb/ft²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.09
  • Maximum design g-load: +9 g
Armament
Avionics