The Constitution was made to guard the people against the dangers of good intentions." --American Statesman Daniel Webster (1782-1852)

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The U.S.S Constitution celebrates another birthday.

I Published the original blogpost in 2012.  The Subsequent article was published in 2019.  It was neat seeing a pic of my son from back in 2011 when we did the first post. 

   We saw the Constitution last year in Boston and took a tour of her, her mast were off during that time as they were being overhauled.   This is my son visiting the Oldest commissioned warship in the world.   I loved visiting Boston,  "B" town was my favorite while I was stationed at Fort Devens in MASS for 9 long months during A.I.T.  I hated Massachusetts because of the way I was treated, but I loved Boston going where all the historical figures had walked was thrilling.  Seeing Boston Commons,  Fanual Hall, Quincy Marketplace and of course "Cheers"

Navy's oldest commissioned warship to sail again

BOSTON (AP) — The U.S. Navy's oldest commissioned warship will sail under its own power for just the second time in more than a century to commemorate the battle that won it the nickname "Old Ironsides."
The USS Constitution, which was first launched in 1797, will be tugged from its berth in Boston Harbor on Sunday to the main deepwater pathway into the harbor. It will then set out to open seas for a 10-minute cruise.
The short trip marks the day two centuries ago when the Constitution bested the British frigate HMS Guerriere in a fierce battle during the War of 1812. It follows a three-year restoration project and is the first time the Constitution has been to sea on its own since its 200th birthday in 1997.
Before that, it hadn't sailed under its own power since 1881. The Constitution is periodically tugged into the harbor for historical display.
Chief Petty Officer Frank Neely, a Constitution spokesman and crew member, said the crew wants to honor and preserve the Constitution with Sunday's sail.
"This ship is a national icon to us. ... She's very special to us. We think she's very special to the United States," he said.
The Constitution was under the command of Capt. Issac Hull when it engaged the Guerriere off Nova Scotia on Aug. 19, 1812. The young war was not going well for America, which had surrendered Detroit to the British with basically no resistance a week earlier.
But the Guerriere proved no match for the Constitution, which was heavier and longer. The vessels blasted away at each other at close range, even colliding at one point, during the 35-minute battle. The Constitution's 24-pound cannonballs felled the Guerriere's mast, while the British vessels' 18-pound cannonballs had trouble penetrating the Constitution's two-foot thick live oak hull, said Matthew Brenckle, a historian at the USS Constitution Museum.
Brenckle said a sailor's memoirs recorded how one cannonball seemed to slightly penetrate the ship, before dropping into the sea. The sailor then called out the quote that would give the Constitution its nickname, "Huzzah, her sides are made of iron! See where the shot fell out!"
It wasn't the first naval win in what would be a divisive, expensive war, but it set off celebrations around the country, Brenckle said.
"Strategically, it really did nothing to change the course of the war," he said. "But the morale boost that that provided for the American cause, I think was quite important."
During Sunday's sail, the Constitution's crew of about 65, accompanied by 150 sailors selected to be part of event, will unfurl four of its 36 sails, Neely said. The tugs will stand by as a precaution when the Constitution sails on its own. And the trip can't happen unless the weather conditions are right.
The ship won't move in winds less than five mph and anything over about 15 mph would put too much stress on the vessel, Neely said. But the forecast looks favorable.
The lengthy work in preparation for Sunday's sail was largely on the Constitution's aesthetics, though the masts were restored, Neely said. The crew also underwent extensive training on how to handle a vessel that's unlike any other in the U.S. Navy.
"A lot of hours of work went into this one day right here," Neely said. "I wouldn't be surprised if I broke a couple of tears after this."

October 2019

The USS Constitution is the world’s oldest commissioned warship still sailing the seas. Nicknamed “Old Ironsides” due to its success in the War of 1812, it is 222 years old and has a record of 33 victories.
The crew of 80 sailed the historic ship to Fort Independence on Castle Island in order to fire a 21-gun salute in honor of its anniversary and the 244th anniversary of the US Navy.
The USS Constitution launched on October 21, 1797, after being built in a shipyard that is now Coast Guard Sector Boston. She fired another salute as she passed there on her way back to her dock at the Charleston Navy Yard.

USS Constitution
USS Constitution
Construction began in 1794 at Edmund Hartt’s Shipyard in the North End of Boston. It took three years to complete the construction.

Not even a month after the US declared war on Britain in June of 1812, Captain Isaac Hull and crew were surrounded by five British ships, the HMS Africa, the HMS Belvidera, the HMS Aeolus, the HMS Shannon, and the HMS Guerrierre.
The USS Constitution had been ordered to go to New York as quickly as possible in order to join up with Commodore John Rodgers’ squadron. What Hull didn’t realize was that Rodgers had already set sail to search for British merchant ships crossing the Atlantic.
After passing the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Hull spotted sails on the horizon. Assuming them to be Rodgers’ squadron, he sailed toward them.
To Hull’s surprise, the ship he reached was not one of Rodgers’ ships but the 38-gun frigate HMS Gurriere.
USS Constitution
Constitution and Guerriere in battle.
Once Hull determined that the ships he had reached were not American, he tried to get away. But by now the wind had died down and the sea was completely calm. The little breeze there was only served to push the British ships closer to the Americans. By now, two more British ships had joined in making a total of seven chasing the Constitution.
The British opened fire but missed. The Constitution returned fire but also missed.
The sails were let out to the maximum and were wet down in order to make them able to capture the slightest breezes. Eventually, Hull ordered several thousand gallons of fresh water be pumped out to decrease the weight of the ship.
The British soon reached firing range. Desperate for a way to escape, Hull turned to his Lieutenant Morris. Morris’ plan was to take a cutter with the anchor and row ahead of the ship. Then the anchor would be dropped out in front of the USS Constitution.
USS Constitution
The earliest known photograph of Constitution, undergoing repairs in 1858.
Crewmen on the ship would pull the anchor chain which would pull the ship forward.
Meanwhile, a second cutter with another anchor rowed ahead a dropped it to be used to continue the pulling while the first cutter gathered its anchor and rowed ahead. They continued that way for hours, alternating cutters and anchors.
They continued this all night with crewmen sleeping by their guns in case there was action. After more than 60 hours of the chase, the Constitution finally pulled far enough ahead of her pursuers that they ceased their pursuit.
USS Constitution
Constitution during the chase
Due to Hull’s seamanship and cunning tactics, the Constitution was able to outrun the British ships and arrive in Boston without damage on July 27, 1812. Hull and his crew had been challenged by seven British warships, including two captained by some of the most famous captains in the Royal Navy, and escaped to tell the tale.

This is known in British history as “The Great Chase” and to US historians as “The Great Escape.”

Monday, October 28, 2019

Monday Music "Fortunate Son" by CCR

I am a member of "Monster Hunter International, Hunters Unite"  on facebook and the subject came up with.  "When you happen to look at your exterior camera's and see the alphabet agencies start forming a stack outside your door, what song will you start Playing?'  This song was mentioned first followed by a few others...so I will run a theme for the next few weeks  "What is your Bugaloo Song?'

"Fortunate Son" is a song by the American rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival released on their fourth studio album, Willy and the Poor Boys in November 1969. It was previously released as a single, together with "Down on the Corner", in September 1969. It soon became an anti-war movement anthem; an expressive symbol of the counterculture's opposition to U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War and solidarity with the soldiers fighting it.

The song reached #14 on the United States charts on November 22, 1969, the week before Billboard changed its methodology on double-sided hits. The tracks combined to climb to #9 the next week, on the way to peaking at #3 three more weeks later, on 20 December 1969. It won the RIAA Gold Disc award in December 1970. Pitchfork Media placed it at number 17 on its list of "The 200 Greatest Songs of the 1960s". Rolling Stone placed it at #99 on its "500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list. In 2013, the song was added to the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."

 To Me  this is one of the Iconic Pics of the Vietnam War

The song, released during the peak period of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, is not explicit in its criticism of that war in particular, rather, it "speaks more to the unfairness of class than war itself," according to its author, John Fogerty. "It's the old saying about rich men making war and poor men having to fight them." In 2015, while on the television show The Voice, he also said:
The thoughts behind this song - it was a lot of anger. So it was the Vietnam War going on... Now I was drafted and they're making me fight, and no one has actually defined why. So this was all boiling inside of me and I sat down on the edge of my bed and out came "It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no senator's son!" You know, it took about 20 minutes to write the song.
According to his 2015 memoir, Fogerty was thinking about David Eisenhower, the grandson of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who married Julie Nixon, the daughter of then-President-elect Richard Nixon in 1968, when he wrote "Fortunate Son."
"Fortunate Son" wasn't really inspired by any one event. Julie Nixon was dating David Eisenhower. You'd hear about the son of this senator or that congressman who was given a deferment from the military or a choice position in the military. They seemed privileged and whether they liked it or not, these people were symbolic in the sense that they weren't being touched by what their parents were doing. They weren't being affected like the rest of us.

The song has been widely used to protest military actions as well as elitism in a broader sense in Western society, particularly in the United States; as an added consequence of its popularity, it has even been used in completely unrelated situations, such as to advertise blue jeans.
It attracted criticism when Bruce Springsteen, Dave Grohl, and Zac Brown performed the song together at the November 2014 Concert for Valor in Washington D.C.. Fogerty, a military veteran, defended their song choice.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Explaining what is going on at Casa De Garabaldi

An explanation of what has been going on and why I haven't posted for the past week.   Since April I have been working on getting my A&P license,  I have been working as an "unlicensed Mechanic" and I am somewhat limited on what I can do although my employer operates as a FAR 145 Repair station so I am covered by that authorization.
      I have been studying to take the test which concentrates mostly on general aviation.  I had gone to a technical college in the middle of my state and did a "cram" session with those people  that already had their "8610" signed by the FAA stating that based on their experience it is "OK" to take the test to get the A&P and I had 4 years of documented experience with A&P mechanics signing off my work.  Well I had permission by the FAA to start the process and after I took the "Cram" which submerged me in the world of "General Aviation".  It helped but I had to pass the 3 written test.  "General, Airframe and Powerplant".  I started studying and went to the General first, it took 3 tries to pass the General.  The first time I was sick and shouldn't have taken the test, so I failed...Studied and took the test again 30 days later and failed...Apparently I went too fast and missed questions....the 3rd time was the charm.  Man there was a lot of algebra in that test.  Then I went and took the Airframe after studying it.  Passed it the first time.  Was happy, then went to Powerplant.  After studying....man I was tired of studying I took the Powerplant and passed it the first time.  I then had to prepare for the "Oral and Practical".  I took the Oral first on Wednesday and was grilled for 4 hours on all three subjects.  Then we went to the practical and I was working on this airplane...
The Yellow Peril"   the plane is flyable, but hasn't had an "annual" in a couple of years,  I worked my practical exercises on both airplanes.

I had to start this one up as my last exercise and following a checklist to the letter.

I got my A&P and I was glad but I was really tired, this chewed up a huge chunk of my time.  I know that it is worth it in the long run but I am glad that it is over.

     On Thursday and Friday I was at the Marriot downtown for a company function and I was on the 44th floor.
Some of the View from my window.
The View from the Inside....
   While I was there I did cater to my inner "Geek" and watched "Lord of the Ring". on Netflex in my room
"I Bid you stand Men of the West"
This is the Clip that I got that Pic from.

And the Ride of the Rohirrins...and if the speech of the King don't get the blood moving...Like I said, I let my inner geek have fun.  I hadn't seen the movie in years and had forgotten how epic the movie is.

My son wanted help with projects on his truck last week so we removed the bumper and repaired it and painted the bumper and installed a license plate bracket.
The Bumper looks pretty good....
Comparison to what the truck looked like before.when we first got the truck...

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Evolution of the Iowa Class

I am still busy, but I was taking a break from studying and was doing a bit of surfing and ran across this article and thought it was very neat and it had a lot of pics I have never seen before.  I hope to continue blogging over the weekend of all goes well:)  I still would like to see one of those ships to be recommissioned but with the lethality of today's missiles I am not sure that the battleships would survive and the swarm of missiles that the Chinese  opposing force would launch.  I am a student of History and I see parallels between the Iowa's and another famous ship that represented a country and a navy during the Prewar Years.
 The "Mighty" Hood
H.M.S Hood flew the flag and was the embodiment of the British Empire during the prewar years and unfortunately by the time WWII rolled around, the Hood was very obsolete.  She was due for upgrades in Armor, fire control systems and anti-aircraft defenses in the late 1930's, but the bean counters put off the upgrades that would have most likely saved the ship when she fought the Bismark in the Battle of the Denmark Strait and was destroyed by an explosion that was endemic of the British Battle Cruisers.  The British knew of the flaw since Jutland but never fixed the problem.

From the time that USS Iowa was laid down in 1940 until today, the Iowa class battleships have been around for 78 years. During that time, the ships underwent many changes to help them adapt to the type of conflict they were engaged in. In this article, I gathered a number of photos from those years and organized them into this collection. They help to show how these warships looked throughout their long and illustrious careers.

Iowa Class Battleships From 1940 to Present

USS Iowa
September 30, 1940. Workers lay out the bottom hull plates for the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) about one month into her construction. Iowa would be the leadship for a new class of battleship design was free of the limitations imposed by the Second London Naval Treaty.
uss missouri
1941. The ceremonial driving of the first rivet for the battleship USS Missouri.
Iowa class battleship
December 7, 1942. The Battleship USS New Jersey slides down the ways on the one year anniversary of the Attack on Pearl Harbor. The day that saw the loss of many battleship of the United States Navy now sees one of its most powerful take to the water.
USS Wisconsin
1943. The hull of the USS Wisconsin (BB-64) looks like she is ready to take to the water. In a few months she would finally slide down the ways during her christening on December 7, 1943.
Iowa class battleship
November 1944. USS Wisconsin (BB-64) ties up to the hulk of the battleship USS Oklahoma (BB-37) while stopping at Pearl Harbor. Wisconsin was 304′ longer than Oklahoma and displaced almost twice as much. Oklahoma was sunk at Pearl Harbor three years earlier. Now it was Wisconsin’s turn to go on the offensive as she headed to the front lines.
September 2, 1945. Swarms of aircraft fly over the battleship Missouri (BB-63) during the surrender to the Allies by the Empire of Japan.
uss missouri
April 5, 1946. USS Missouri anchored off of Istanbul, Turkey. She brought home the body of the Turkish Ambassador Mehmet Munir Ertegun. She is accompanied by the Turkish battlecruiser Yavuz, formally the battlecruiser SMS Goeben of the Imperial German Navy.
uss iowa
May 24, 1947. USS Iowa (BB-61) anchored in San Francisco Bay.
uss new jersey
June 1948. USS New Jersey being moved from the New York Navy Yard to the Bayonne Shipyard in New Jersey for decommissioning. The dome shaped structures adorning her are covers for her 40mm anti-aircraft guns.
uss missouri
Summer 1949. USS Missouri tied up to the pier at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Photos like this really show off just how amazingly large these leviathans truly were.

October 21, 1950. USS Missouri fires a salvo into Chong Jin, Korea. Missouri was the first battleship to arrive off of Korea and she quickly set to work pummeling targets of opportunity. The firepower of the battleships was devastating to North Korean and Chinese forces.
November 10, 1951. USS New Jersey (BB-62) unleashes a broadside into the region surrounding the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. A haze of smoke in the background marks the location of a previous salvo.
uss wisconsin
April 1952. USS Wisconsin is used to test the lifting power of the largest drydock available to the United States Navy, AFDB-1. AFDB-1, named Artisan was first used during the Second World War. It was one of the only floating drydocks capable of handling an Iowa class battleship. She was moved to Guam to serve as a forward repair base during the Korean War.
uss new jersey
1953. New Jersey lends her firepower during the Korean War. Judging by the elevation of her 16″ guns, she is firing at extreme range. The Iowa class were capable of sending a 2,700lb shell to just over 42,345 yards (24.05 miles).
iowa class battleships
June 7, 1954. All four battleships of the Iowa class steam together as Battleship Division 2. This was the only time that all four sisters were together. The ships (from nearest to farthest) are USS Iowa, USS Wisconsin, USS Missouri, and USS New Jersey.
uss new jersey
1955. USS New Jersey takes on fuel from the fleet oiler USS Mississinewa (AO-144) along with the destroyer USS Bordelon (DDR-881). New Jersey was operating in the Mediterranean Sea at this time.
uss wisconsin
May 1956. USS Wisconsin steams to port with a chunk of her bow missing. On the sixth of May, she had collided with the destroyer USS Eaton (DD-510). Wisconsin was repaired by replacing her damaged bow with that of her never finished sister, USS Kentucky (BB-66).
uss iowa
June 13, 1957. USS Iowa at Hampton Roads, Virginia. She was there to take part in the International Naval review.
uss wisconsin
1958. USS Wisconsin cruising off of Hampton Roads. This was one of the last cruises she would conduct before being decommissioned later that year.
iowa class battleships
February 6, 1959. The sixth ship of the Iowa class, USS Kentucky (BB-66) is towed up the Chesapeake Bay on her way to the scrappers. Her deck is littered with unused material including 5″ gun barrels and their turrets. Kentucky and her sister, Illinois (BB-65), were both cancelled during construction.

iowa class battleships

1962. Three Iowa class battleships mothballed at the Philadelphia Naval Yard. From back to front: USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, and USS Wisconsin. New Jersey was originally stored at Bayonne, New Jersey but had been moved to Philadelphia the previous year.
uss missouri

July 4, 1963. USS Missouri continues sit in mothballs at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Missouri was mothballed on the West Coast while her sisters were on the East Coast.
uss missouri
April 10, 1964. Despite her mothballed status, Missouri served as the location of the memorial service that honored General Douglas MacArthur following his passing.
iowa class battleships
April 1965. The battleships New Jersey (Left) and Iowa (Right) tied up together at Philadelphia. Wisconsin had been temporarily moved to another location at the time.
iowa class battleships
1966. Though she as not a battleship, the fast combat support ship USS Sacramento (AOE-1) was very much related to the Iowa class. Before scrapping, the boilers and turbines of the sixth Iowa class battleship USS Kentucky were removed. Half of the power plant would be placed into USS Sacramento while the other half would go to her sister USS Camden (AOE-2).
iowa class battleships
April 1967. Three of the Iowa class sisters tied up together in mothballs. From left to right: USS Wisconsin (BB-64), USS New Jersey (BB-62), and USS Iowa (BB-61).
uss new jersey
September 11, 1968. USS New Jersey cruising off of Hawaii before she would head for Vietnam. In interesting feature of this photograph is the 40mm gun tubs just forward of the 5″ guns. These were used as swimming pools by the crew. New Jersey was the only one of her sisters to have such a lavish feature!

March 1969. USS New Jersey (BB-62) fires a shell into South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. During the war, New Jersey performed brilliantly. During her brief time off Vietnam, she fired 5,688 rounds of 16 inch shells, and 14,891 rounds of 5-inch shells.
uss missouri
March 19, 1970. The battleship Missouri is mothballed at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. She is accompanied by several other ships including the cruisers Roanoke (CL-145) and Worcester (CL-144). Perhaps one of the few images showing America’s last battleships alongside its last light cruisers.

uss missouri uss new jersey

July 1974. A large assortment of mothballed ships at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. USS Missouri is at the bottom of the photo while her sister USS New Jersey can be seen farther up. Following her tour of service off Vietnam, New Jersey was decommissioned and placed at here.

uss missouri
1976. The battleship Missouri still quietly moored at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

iowa class battleships
1978. USS Iowa (Right) and USS Wisconsin (Left) mothballed at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Iowa was mothballed from 1958 until 1984. Wisconsin was mothballed from 1958 until 1988. They are accompanied by the aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La (CVS-38).

uss wisconsin
April 1980. Years of neglect are apparent in this photo taken from the bow of USS Wisconsin.
iowa class battleships
1981. The Iowa class battleship USS Missouri (BB-63) and USS New Jersey (BB-62) at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Due to her being reactivated for service in Vietnam, New Jersey looks very different from Missouri. 

December 28, 1982. The USS New Jersey is recommissioned at Long Beach California with President Ronald Regan in attendance. The Iowa class had finally returned to service thirteen years after being decommissioned.
uss iowa
June 17, 1983. USS Iowa (BB-61) undergoing modernization at the Ingalls Shipbuilding Yard to prepare for her recommissioning. Following her modernization, she would finally be recommissioned on April 28, 1984.

July 1, 1984. With a thunderous roar, USS Iowa demonstrates her firepower by firing all nine of her 16″/50 as well as six of her 5″/38 guns. The blast of her main guns is easily seen o the water surrounding them.
USS Iowa
November 19, 1985. USS Iowa (BB-61) uses all of her 212,000 shaft horsepower during a full power run in the Chesapeake Bay. She is kicking up an unbelievable amount of water in her wake.

December 30, 1986. USS New Jersey (BB-62) fires all of its 16″ guns during a spectacular firepower demonstration.
uss iowa
October 17, 1987. The Battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) leads the aircraft carriers Coral Sea (CV-43) and Saratoga (CV-60) plus their respective battlegroups into Augusta Bay, Sicily.
uss new jersey
1988. Tugboats guide USS New Jersey into Port Jackson. New Jersey had arrived in Sydney to take part in the Australian Bicentennial.
uss missouri
February 1, 1989. USS Missouri having her hull scrapped and other work done while in drydock. Her outer four bladed screws are 18.25′ in diameter while her inner five blades screws are 17′ in diameter. Couple with the powerful 212,000 shaft horsepower turbines, the Iowa class could exceed 32 knots.
uss wisconsin
1990. USS Wisconsin steaming alongside the carrier USS Saratoga (CV-60) during their 1990-1991 deployment in the Mediterranean and Red Seas.
uss wisconsin

January 18, 1991. USS Wisconsin uses her 5″/58 secondary guns to pound targets ashore during the Gulf War. Wisconsin spent eight months in the Persian Gulf. During that time, she fired 319 16″ shells, 881 5″ shells, and 5,200 20mm rounds in addition to her 24 cruise missiles.
uss new jersey
August 1992. The battleship New Jersey is tied up to the same pier at USS Hornet (CVS-12) at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

September 1993. The mothballed battleships USS Iowa (BB-61) and USS Wisconsin (BB-64) tied up together at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. I remembered seeing them there while we were driving in the Northeas.

iowa class battleships
October 30, 1995. A photo of the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard along with a wide assortment of warships. Among the battleships Iowa and Wisconsin can be seen at the right. I was on that bridge when I saw the ships and I almost wrecked,  I knew what they were and so wanted to stop...but couldn't.

June 22, 1998. Crowds gather as USS Missouri enters the channel leading to Pearl Harbor. She was being moved to Pearl Harbor to serve as a museum ship. The location that saw the entrance of the United States into World War II would now host the vessel that saw its end.
uss new jersey
November 11, 1999. The battleship USS New Jersey is towed up the Delaware river towards the Philadelphia Shipyard. She would go on to be restored and converted into a floating museum.
uss wisconsin
December 12, 2000. USS Wisconsin located at her new home in Norfolk, Virginia.

uss missouri

January 31, 2003. The battleship Missouri watches over the USS Arizona. In the background, nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) enters Pearl Harbor.

April 16, 2004. In celebration of the ship’s 60th anniversary of her commissioning, sailors from the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71)  man the rails aboard USS Wisconsin.

uss missouri

January 7, 2010. Workers work early in the morning to prepare USS Missouri for her undocking later that day. Missouri had undergone an 18 million dollar overhaul aimed at preserving her so that future generations could continue to visit her.

uss missouri
May 25, 2015. The crew renders honors aboard the USNS Mercy (T-AH-19) as they pass the battleships Arizona and Missouri.

August 30, 2016. Iowa fires her secondary guns in salute to the assault carrier USS America (LHA-6) as she arrives at Los Angeles Harbor.  Though it might not look like it, at full load the Iowa (58,000 tons) displaced roughly 13,000 more tons than USS America (44,971 tons).From harbingers of war to the setting for peace. From World War II to the Gulf War. From instruments of destruction to tools of education. The Iowa class battleships have seen plenty of change throughout the years. Thanks to the dedicated people who maintain them today, we will ensure that they remain around for another 78 years.